July 3, 2017

Error Handling in Swift?

I’ve been writing a lot of Swift recently, both for iOS and macOS (maybe some server side Linux stuff in future too). Whenever you learn a new language you initially take some idioms from other languages with you. I am primarily a JavaScript developer, where, due to the nature of things, most operations are asynchronous, so they are wrapped in promises. Error handling in this case is mostly handled in anonymous functions where the first parameter is the error object:

2    .then((content) => {
3        // do something with the content...
4    })
5    .catch((error) => {
6        console.error(error)
7    })

Recently though this has changed through the use of async/await. Instead of using the catch callback on a promise we are back to try/catch:

1try {
2    let content = fs.readFile('some/file.ext')
3    // do something with the content...
4} catch (error) {
5    console.error(error)

While asnyc/await is amazingly useful, we’ve come full circle, back to exceptions like in Java, C# or C++ where I’ve seen a lot of code like the following.

1try {
2    String contents = new File("some/file.ext").readAll()
3} catch (IOException e) {}

Or worse, just letting the method throw, bubbling up the call chain.

Having worked with both Go and Rust this felt a little backwards. Go especially used to advertise with the premise that they didn’t have any exceptions (there are panics however). Instead, Go and Rust make error handling a core part of programming, not an “exception”. I don’t want to go into too much detail about Rust or Go, but here’s a very quick recap of how they handle errors.


1// opened `file` above (error also dealt with using `match`)
2let mut s = String::new();
3match file.read_to_string(&mut s) {
4    Err(why) => panic!("couldn't read file: {}", why.description()),
5    Ok(_) => print!("contents:\n{}", s),

Rust uses the Result<T, E>-type; an enum that covers the two possible cases of an operation:

1enum Result<T, E> {
2   Ok(T),
3   Err(E),


1dat, err := ioutil.ReadFile("/some/file.ext")
2if err != nil {
3	//...

Go uses multiple return parameters to inform the user that a function could return an error. While it may be a little less elegant than Rust’s Result-type the error handling is very expressive.

Errors in Swift?

So finally, after we’ve set the playing field we get to Swift. Reading about Swift and how much it seemingly took out of the functional (and in turn Rust’s) playbook I was excited to see what the Swift team had come up with. Queue my disappointment when I saw the examples and they defaulted to “old school” try/catch. Seems like a bit of a waste of the type system. So when writing Swift code, especially asynchronous code, I needed a way other than just throwing an error out there, hoping someone would catch it. Maybe it’s due to my inexperience with Swift that I did not like the uncertainty of throwing.

Initially I tried Go-style tuples and destructuring as a kind of “fake” multiple return parameters. So a function that could fail looked this:

1func readFile(path: String) -> (String?, Error?) {
2    do {
3        let content = try String(contentsOf: path, encoding: String.Encoding.utf8) 
4        return (content, nil)
5    } catch (let e) {
6        return (nil, e)
7    }

This worked, and solved my problem, but it meant that everything had to be declared as optional. So instead of using the type system to my advantage, encoding logic in types, I threw away some type safety and convenience. So after a while I decided to switch to Rust-style Results:

I created my own Result-enum:

1enum Result<T> {
2    case Value(T)
3    case Error(Error)
1func readFile(path: String) -> Result<String> {
2    do {
3        let content = try String(contentsOf: path, encoding: String.Encoding.utf8) 
4        return .Value(content)
5    } catch (let e) {
6        return .Error(e)
7    }

Now I could use switch statements to handle my errors:

1switch readFile("some/file.ext") {
2case .Value(let content):
3    print(content)
4case .Error(let error):
5    print(error)

In future I could even extend the Result enum using functions like map or flatten to make handling errors even easier. I can pass the result around, confident that the type system will make sure I don’t do anything stupid (spoiler alert: I will find a way regardless).

I’m not sure if this is the most idiomatic way to handle errors in Swift, but it certainly beats try/catch for me.

© Robin Thrift 2020